YHVH’s ETERNAL COVENANTS with His people
A covenant is a binding relationship which our Father will not break. It is a sign of His faithfulness towards us that even though we continually sin, His plan for us, which was made before time began will never be broken. If we are to see the Father as the Creator of all, the one true God then we must really delve into His covenants to see His perfect plan for us. When we do, we can have faith that what He has covenanted with man will come to fruition.
I am going to look briefly at all the covenants made in the Father’s Word and go through each and show how they are all so intimately related and how they are fixed!
The first covenant made between the Creator of the heavens and the earth and man was the covenant made with Adam. There are two parts to it – before, and after ‘the fall’.
The Edenic Covenant (innocence).
Genesis 1:26 - 30 26 Then God said, “Let us make humankind in Our image, in the likeness of ourselves; and let them rule over the fish of the sea, the birds in the air, the animals, and over all the earth, and over the crawling creatures that crawls on the earth.
27 So God created humankind in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.
28 God blessed them; God said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply and fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea, the birds in the air and every living creature that crawls on earth.
29 Then God said, “Here! Throughout the whole earth I am giving you as food every seed-bearing plant and every tree with seed-bearing fruit.
30 And to every wild animal , bird in the air, and creature crawling on the earth, in which there is a living soul , I am giving as food every kind of green plant.” And that is how it was.
· Created in God’s image. Interesting to note the use of the Our in verse 26. Is it a reference to Adonai echad? or is it, as Jewish thought maintains, a reference to the ‘Angelic’ Hosts?’ Genesis 18:1, 2 mentions God appearing to Abraham … but in verse 2 He raised his eyes and there in front of him stood three men. Does this line up with the ‘Jewish thought’ mentioned in reference to verse 26?
· Mankind’s dominion over the animal kingdom.
· Divine directive for mankind to reproduce and inhabit the entire earth.
· Mankind is to be vegetarian. The eating of meat was established in the Noahic Covenant. (Genesis 9:3)
Genesis 2:16, 17
16 ADONAI God gave the person this order, “You may freely eat from every tree in the garden
17 except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. You may not eat from it, because on the day that you eat from it, it is certain that you will die.”
The Adamic Covenant (grace)
Genesis 3:16 – 19
16 To the woman he said, “I will greatly increase pain in your childbirth. You will bring forth children in pain. Your desire will be toward your husband, but he will rule over you.”
17 To Adam he said, “Because you listened to what your wife said and ate from the tree about which I gave you the order, ‘ You are not to eat from it.’ The ground is cursed on your account; you will work hard from it for as long as you shall live.
18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat field plants.
19 You will eat bread by the sweat of your forehead till you return to the ground – for you were taken out of it; you are dust, and you will return to the dust.”
· Enmity between Satan and Eve and her descendants
· Painful childbirth for woman
· Marital strife
· The soil cursed
· Introduction of thorns and thistles
· Struggle for survival
· Death introduced
· Death will be an inescapable fate for all living things.
Although these curses were severe and inescapable, a wonderful promise of grace was also included in the Adamic Covenant.
Genesis 3:15 “I will put animosity between you and the woman and between your descendant and her descendant; he will bruise your heel and you will bruise his heal.”
Here God promises one born of the woman would be wounded in the process of destroying Satan. The seed of the woman who will ‘crush’ Satan’s heel is none other than Yeshua (Isaiah 53:4, 5).
Galatians 4:4 but when the appointed time arrived, God sent forth His Son. He was born from a woman, born into a culture where legalistic perversion of the Torah was the norm
1 John 3:8 Yet I am writing you a new command, and it’s reality is seen in both Him and in you, because the darkness is passing away and the true light is shining.
Even in the midst of the curse, God’s gracious provision of salvation shines through (Romans 8:22 – 25).
The Noachide Covenant
(Genesis 8:20 - 9:17 READ)
After the flood, Noach exited the ark and built an offering to the Lord with burnt offerings. The Lord promises Noach that the earth would never be flooded again because of man’s sin. The covenant is made with Noach, his sons and all human descendants. It is also made with living creatures; birds, animals, and beasts of the earth.
The specific covenant is that the present earth will remain, and planting and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter and day and night will continue. A flood will never again destroy all life on earth. The sign of the Noachide flood is the rainbow, which is a reminder of YHVH’s promise and a sign to humankind that He will keep His covenant. It seems ironic to me, how it is used today!
It is interestingly elaborated upon in 2 Peter 3:3 – 7
3 First understand this; during the last days, scoffers will come, following their own desires
4 and asking, “where is this promised ‘coming of his? For our fathers have died, and everything goes on just as it has from the beginning of creation.”
5 But, wanting so much to be right about this, they overlook the fact that it is by God’s Word that long ago there were heavens, and there was land which arose out of the water and existed between the waters
6 and by that means of these things that the world of that time was flooded with water and destroyed.
7 It is by the same Word that the present heavens and earth, having been preserved, are being kept for fire until the Day of Judgement, when ungodly people will be destroyed.
Here Peter explains that ADONAI is willing and able to make decisions in which He honours the righteous but keeps judgements to the wicked.
Yeshua speaks about the same final judgement in Matthew 5:17, 18
17 Don’t think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets. I have come not to abolish but to keep.
18 Yes indeed! I tell you that until heaven and earth pass away, not so much as a yud or stroke will pass from the Torah – not until everything that must happen has happened.
Yeshua is talking about the same event as Peter. The Torah is hear until the final judgement. It is interesting to think about this. YHVH’s Word is saying that the Torah will be here until the end! Halleluyah!
God’s covenant with Noach is important, as it is used in Scripture to connect with the other four covenants. In each of these covenants we see the claim that as long as day and night, season and the earth remain God will maintain His covenants with Avraham, Isra’el, David and the new covenant described by Jeremiah.
The Abrahamic Covenant
(Genesis 17:1 – 21 READ)
Avram was told by God to leave his family and homeland and go to a place the Father would show him. There, he would become a great nation and source of blessing for all peoples, the descendants of Noach (Genesis 12:1 – 3). After many years, when Avram was 99, God changed his name to Avraham and made a specific covenant with him (Genesis17:1 – 21).
God’s part of the covenant was to make Avraham a ‘father of nations’. This covenant would be continued through Avraham’s descendants after him. God further promised that He would give the land of Avraham’s wandering to his descendants alone as an everlasting possession. The Holy Land specifically included the land of Canaan. In the Avrahamic Covenant, He promised to be God of Avraham’s descendants, and He promised that they would inherit the Land of Promise. This intimate covenant establishes an eternal link between the Holy God, the holy people and the Holy Land. Avraham’s part of the covenant was to undergo circumcision along with his entire household and this was to be practised in every generation.
God also changed the name of Avraham’s wife from Sarai to Sarah and established that the descendants of the Avrahamic Covenant would be through Avraham and Sarah and not through Avraham and Hagar.
God confirmed the Avrahamic Covenant with Yitz’chak (Genesis 26:2 – 6) and with Ya’akov (Genesis 28:10 – 22).
The Avrahamic Covenant has not been replaced by the Mosaic Covenant. and its promises are as valid now as when the covenant was made by the God of Avraham. In fact, it was enforced by God with regard to Moshe, who failed to circumcise his own son (Galatians 3:17, 18);
17 Here is what I am saying: the legal part of the Torah, which came into being 430 years later, does not nullify an oath sworn by God, so as to abolish the promise
18 For if the inheritance comes from a legal part of the Torah, it no longer comes from a promise. But God gave it to Avraham through a promise.
and (Exodus 4:24 – 26);
24 At a lodging-place on the way, ADONAI met Moshe and would have killed him,
25 had not Tzipporah taken a flintstone and cut off the foreskin of her son. She threw it at his feet, saying, “What a bloody bridegroom you are for me!”
26 But then, God let Moshe be. She added “a bloody bridegroom because of the circumcision!”
The blessings promised with Avraham on behalf of Believers are directed to those nations and not to Isra’el, though they will come through Isra’el (Romans 11:16 – 24). Likewise, the descendants of Avraham will be blessed by God directly, as seen in the Mosaic Covenant.
The Mosaic Covenant (Exodus 19:3 – 6)
3 Moshe went up to God and ADONAI called to him from the mountain; “Here is what you are to say to the household of Ya’akov, to tell the people of Isra’el.
4 You have seen what I have done to the Egyptians, and how I carried you on eagle’s wings and brought you to Myself.
5 Now if you will pay careful attention to what I say and keep my covenant, then you will be my own treasure from among the peoples, for all the earth is mine.
7 and you will be a kingdom of cohanim for me, a nation set apart.’ These are the words you are to speak to the people of Isra’el.
On the basis of the covenant made to Avraham YHVH delivered the children of Isra’el from Egypt and established another covenant at Sinai. The Father used Moshe as the deliverer and mediator of this covenant between Isra’el and YHVH.
It is not a covenant of salvation, but instead a covenant of “blessing and cursing” based on trusting and faithfulness on Israel’s part. It is similar to a marriage contract (I would like to think instead a marriage covenant) or a vassal treaty between YHVH as husband and king and Isra’el, as his wife and people.
VASSAL TREATY - In the Ancient Near East, treaties between kings was common. These were treaties drawn up among equals and mostly outlined agreements to honour each other's boundaries, to maintain trade relations, and return run-away slaves. These treaties are preserved in the Mari Tablets and in the Amarna texts. Also preserved in these collections are treaties drafted between a superior and his inferior. If the relationship was familial or friendly, the parties are referred to as "father" and "son." If the relationship is bereft of kindness and intimacy, the parties are referred to as "lord" and "servant," or "king" and "vassal," or "greater king" and "lesser king." The greater king is the suzerain and the lesser king is a prince, or a lesser lord in the service of the greater king. The lesser lord is a representative of all the common people who are under the protection of the greater king. He enforces the treaty among the masses.
The Mosaic Covenant includes blessings and security in the land for faithful obedience (Deuteronomy 28) and curses and exile for faithless disobedience (Deuteronomy 27).
The Mosaic Covenant further includes a promise that even though Isra’el will not keep this covenant fully and will be ultimately removed from the land, the Father will not completely forsake them, but will punish them and scatter them among the nations. From their exile, the Father will circumcise their hearts and they will return to Him (repentance, t’shuvah). The Father will gather His people back and atone for the land (Deuteronomy 30 – 33). This promise is to confirm and keep His promise to Avraham (Our Father NEVER breaks a covenant). The generation that made this covenant with the Father at Mt Sinai will not enter the Promised Land. The next generation reaffirmed the covenant and entered into the land under Y’hoshua (Joshua 1:1 – 9). Each generation must confirm the Abrahamic Covenant by the circumcision of their males and confirm the Mosaic Covenant by binding the Father’s Words on their foreheads and hands. Although they waver in their faithfulness to the covenant the Father remains faithful.
Now we must continue to recall Matthew 5:17 – 19 reinforcing the thought that the Mosaic Covenant remains in its entirety until all is fulfilled. The Prophets said that as long as heaven and earth remain consistent with the Noachide Covenant, Isra’el will remain a people before Him!
The Mosaic Covenant IS NOT a replacement of the covenants with Avraham and Noach. IT IS DEPENDANT UPON THEM AND ALONG WITH THEM IS PRESENTLY IN EFFECT.
We will also see that the Davidic Covenant will affirm and express the earlier covenants. The new covenant fulfils rather than replacing the earlier covenants. The Christianity community errs severely whenever it claims the new covenant has replaced the covenant made between Moshe, the children of Isra’el and God at Mt Sinai. Remember, the Mosaic Covenant is built on the Adamic, Noachide and Avrahamic Covenants.
The Davidic Covenant
(2 Samuel 7:8 – 17)
8 Therefore say this to my servant David that this is what ADONAI-Tzva’ot (YHVH of armies, YHVH of powers) says, “I took you from the sheep-yards from following the sheep, to make you chief over my people, over Isra’el.
9 I have been with you wherever you went; I have destroyed all of your enemies ahead of you, and I have made your reputation great , like the reputations of the greatest people on earth.
10 I will assign a place to my people Isra’el; I will plant them there so that they can live in their own place without being disturbed any more. The wicked will no longer oppress them like they did in the beginning.
11 and as they did from the time that I ordered judges to be over my people Isra’el; instead I will give you rest from my enemies.
“’Moreover, ADONAI tells you that ADONAI will make you a house.
12 When your days come to an end and you sleep with your ancestors, I will establish one of your descendants to succeed you, one of your own flesh and blood; and I will set up his rulership.
13 He will build a house for My name and I will establish his royal throne forever.
14 I will be a Father for him and he will be a son for Me. If he does something wrong I will punish him with a rod and blows, just as everyone gets punishment (Editor’s note: Is this the start of, the adage spare the rod and spoil the child).
15 Nevertheless, My grace will not leave him as I took it away from Sh’aul who I removed from before you.
16 Thus your house and your kingdom will be made secure before you: your throne will be set up forever.
17 Natan told David all of these words and described this entire vision.
The Davidic Covenant is related to the covenants with Noach, Avraham and Moshe. It specifically addresses the messianic kingdom through the line of David.
David is promised a house, or a dynasty as king of Isra’el and his son Shlomo (Solomon) will build the House of the Lord – the Temple (mishkan). The covenant has immediate and future Messianic connections. – Shlomo would build the Temple. But the Messiah, as the son of David would rule over Isra’el in peace and security. Yeshua is referred to as ‘The Son of David’ in Matthew 15:22 and Matthew 20:30. The Davidic Covenant established the continuation of Torah, Temple worship and the priesthood, as well as the covenant of Sinai, while leading into the messianic kingdom to come. But since it is now interrupted in history (no Temple), it requires restoration (tikkun) and renewal. This restoration is described by the prophet Amos, who declares that after the Disapora of Isra’el, the Father will raise up the tent of David and raise its ruins.
Amos 9:11 – 15 11 “When that day comes I will raise up the fallen sukkah of David. I will close up the gaps, raise up its ruins and rebuild it as it used
12 so that Isra’el can possess what is left of Edom and of all the nations bearing my name.” says ADONAI, who is doing this.
13 “The days will come,” says ADONAI, “when the plowman will overtake the reaper and the ones treading the grapes the one sowing seed. Sweet wine will drip down the mountains and all the hills will flow with it.
14 I will restore the fortunes of my people Isra’el; they will rebuild and inhabit the ruined cities; they will plant vineyards and grow their wine, cultivate gardens and eat their fruit.
15 I will plant them on their own soil, no more to be uprooted from their land, which I gave them,” says ADONAI your Elohim.
This will restore the Kingdom of Isra’el and include nations (believers) who are called by God’s name. Isra’el will again be the Promised Land in blessing and peace, and never will be rooted out of the land.
The beginning of the restoration is connected to Yeshua as Messiah and king of Isra’el. Miryam (Mary) is told that her son Yeshua would be great and the Lord God would give Him the throne of His father David, and that He would reign in His kingdom over Isra’el. Luke 1:26 – 30 READ.
Luke 1:32 (NKJV) He will be great, He will be called the Son of the Highest; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David.
Acts 15:12 – 21 stresses that Yeshua is consistent with Amos’s prediction. Yeshua would soon reign on the throne of David over the house of Isra’el, and that the kingdom would include the believers called by the Lord.
The obvious conclusion is that the future holds a time when this will be completed. Yeshua will return to Yerushalyim and all of Isra’el, both living and dead, will be gathered in the Land of Promise. This includes believers called by the Lord, and God’s kingdom will be restored to Isra’el (Acts 1:6). At that time, the Messiah will reign from Yerushalyim, upon the throne of David and the Torah will go forth from Zion and the word of the Lord from Yerushalyim. The nations will stream to the house of the Elohim of Isra’el, there will be eternal shalom and the nations will never again learn war. (Isaiah 2:2 – 4 NKJV)
2 Now it shall come to pass in the latter days that the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established on the top of the mountains and shall be exalted above the hills; And all the nations shall flow to it.
3 Many people shall come and say, “come and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, and we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion will go forth Torah and the Word of God from Yerushalyim’
4 He shall judge between the nations and rebuke the people; they shall beat their swords into plough-blades, and their spears into pruning hooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war anymore.
THE ERROR OF REPLACEMENT THEOLOGY
This covenant is missed by ‘replacement theology’ adherents in their belief that the throne of David is in the heaven, and the Isra’el of God is the church, and the kingdom will not include restoration of Isra’el in the land. They believe that God is finished with Isra’el and that Isra’el is not a people before God because they rejected Yeshua. Jeremiah 33:14 - 18, however makes it clear that the Davidic Covenant will be fulfilled.
Revelations 3:12 tells us I will make Him that wins the victory a pillar in the Temple of my God, and He will never leave it. Also, I will write on him the name of my God and the name of my God’s city, the new Yerushalayim coming down out of heaven from my God and my own name.
Revelations 21:2, 3 reaffirms 2 Also I saw the holy city, New Yerushalayim, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride beautifully dressed for her husband.
3 I heard a loud voice from the throne say, “See! God’s sh’khinah (dwelling or settling) is with mankind, and He will live with them. They will be His people and He Himself, God-with-them, will be their God.
12 It had a great, high wall with twelve gates, at the gates were twelve angels; and inscribed on the gates were the names of the twelve tribes of Isra‘el.
The twelve tribes of Isra’el are also mentioned in Matthew 19:18 and Luke 22:30 where the emissaries are to judge them. This does sound like the Father is NOT finished with Isra’el.
Jeremiah 33:14 – 18 “Here, the days are coming,” says ADONAI, “When I will fulfil this good promise which I have proclaimed for the house of Isra’el and the house of Y’hudah.
15 When those days come , I will cause to spring up for David a Branch of Righteousness. He will do what is just and right in the land.
16 When those days come , Y’hudah will be saved, Yerushalyim shall live in safety, and the name given to her will be ADONAI Tzidkenu (The Lord our Righteousness).
17 For this is what the house of ADONAI says’ “There will never be cut off from David a man to occupy the throne of the house of Isra’el.
18 Nor will there ever be cut off from the cohanim, the levities, a man before me to offer burnt offerings, burnt grain offerings and offer sacrifices before me every day.
The righteous Branch of David will execute justice and righteousness in the earth (NOT THE HEAVEN) and the throne of David will continue. As long as the Noachide Covenant remains unbroken (the fixed patterns of heaven and earth) so too the Davidic Covenant will remain unbroken and those who reject the idea that God remains faithful to Isra’el are in error
(Jeremiah 33: 23 – 26. 23 This word of God came to Jeremiah:
24 “Haven’t you noticed that these people are saying, ‘ADONAI has rejected the two families He chose? Hence, they despise my people and no longer look at them as a nation.
25 Here is what ADONAI says: ‘ If I have not established my covenant with day and night and fixed the laws for the sky and earth,
26 then I will also reject the descendants of Ya’akov and my servant David, not choosing from his descendants people to rule over the descendants of Avraham, Yis’chak, and Ya’akov. For I will cause their captives to come back, and I will show them compassion.
It is clear that the Noachide Covenant and the Davidic Covenants will stand and YHVH will show compassion to His people – the descendants of Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya’akov. Of course, this is also emphasised in Deuteronomy.
A gentile is someone who is out of covenant with YHVH. That does not include us. I am using the term believer to describe people who have been grafted in to the Kingdom as in Acts 11.
The Gospel and the Covenants
The gospel related to the new covenant emerges in Isaiah 40:1 – 11, brings comfort to Isra’el and the “good news” that the glory of the Lord is about to be revealed. A voice crying in the wilderness will prepare the way of the Lord. The Lord God will come and like a shepherd He will tend His flock. This text is followed by the description of the servant of the Lord in Isaiah 42. In Isaiah 52 Yesha’yahu (Isaiah) expresses this hope for Isra’el and mentions the “good news” again. In Isaiah 52:7 “How beautiful are the feet of Him who brings good news …. The Lord will show His salvation in the sight of the nations, and the God of Zion will reign and restore Yerushalayim.
This is followed by the description of the suffering servant of the Lord in Isaiah 53. The good news announced here is that God will accomplish His word to Isra’el, redeem them, and restore them to the Land of Promise. This is good news indeed, and it requires the coming of the servant of the Lord who would suffer to remove sin. This is consistent with the Jewish understanding that salvation is not about going to heaven but instead about the full restoration of the creation through the Messiah of Isra’el.
The four gospels base their messages on Isaianic prophecy. Each begins with the coming of Yochanan the Immerser (John the Baptist) as the “voice crying in the wilderness”. He is not the Messiah but announces the coming of the Messiah and the restoration of the kingdom of Isra’el.
The Gospel writers identify that Yeshua is both the suffering one (Son of Yosef) and the coming one (Son of David) who will reign in the restored kingdom. In Luke 2:10 – 11;
10 but the angel said to them “Don’t be afraid, because I am announcing to you Good News that will bring great joy to all the people.
11 This very day, in the town of David there will be born to you a Deliverer who is the Messiah, the Lord.
The Gospels are the “good news” that the “suffering one” has died - once and for all – to put away the sin of Isra’el and the whole world, and because of His resurrection, death has been conquered. Yeshua ascended into heaven as the great high priest of the order of Mal-ki-Tzedeck and is now seated at the right hand of the Father and will return to restore the kingdom to Isra’el and the whole creation of God as King of kings and Lord of lords. On that day Yeshua will be seated on the throne of David in Yerushalayim forever.
Yeshua’s return will include the gathering of Isra’el (both the living and the dead) from the nations of their Diaspora, and so all Isra’el will be saved. In this, all the covenants will be brought into full operation and fulfillment, and all believers will be included through what Sha’ul calls the mystery of the gospels (Ephesians 3:1 – 7).
The New Covenant
YHVH set the parameters of the present covenant with Noach. He established His people through whom He would restore the covenant with Avraham. At Sinai, He began the covenant of blessings and curse with His people Isra’el. In the Davidic Covenant He confirmed the Kingdom of Isra’el with the son of David and the Levitical priesthood. While each of these covenants has remained valid and in force, none of them have been brought into full or complete manifestation. This fulfillment of the covenants requires a final and ultimate covenant that will complete and fulfil all others before it. This is called the ‘new covenant’.
The new covenant would be different from the Mosaic Covenant in that Isra’el and Y’hudah would not break it, resulting in the full manifestation that He is their God and they bare His people. In its fulfillment this covenant will not require proclamation or evangelization, because they will all know Him and they will be forgiven for their sins (Jeremiah 31:31 – 34).
This covenant is needed because the Mosaic one at Sinai was flawed by flesh. What the Torah cannot do because of man’s evil inclination , God will do by sending His Son, the Messiah to accomplish it. This is the heart of the good news (gospel) which is related to the new covenant but is NOT the new covenant. So, the new covenant will complete and fulfil the other covenants and bring full restoration and salvation to the Father’s creation. In Jeremiah 31:35 – 37 God addresses the covenant with Noach by saying that when the fixed order of the sun and moon can be measured and explored fully , only then will Isra’el cease to be a people of be cast off. While the creation stands, Isra’el stands as the people of God . And the new covenant will bring all the promises to full operation.
Yeshua Himself addresses this in Matthew 5:17 – 19. At the last supper during Pesach , Yeshua took the elements of the Seder and claimed they were the establishment of a new covenant. He spoke of this cup , which is poured out for humankind (the cup of redemption), as the new covenant in His blood. His death and resurrection would bring about the establishment of the new covenant with Isra’el and Y’hudah through the mystery of the good news. This promise of full restoration would also include other believers.
The Mystery of the Gospel
There is a mystery hidden in God from the ages past that has been revealed by the Ruach Ha’Kodesh to His emissaries and prophets. Paul speaks of this mystery in Ephesians 3:1 – 7.
1 It is a consequence of this that I Sha’ul, am a prisoner of the Messiah Yeshua on behalf of you Gentiles
2 I assume that you have heard of the work of Good in His grace has given me to do for your benefit,
3 and it was by revelation that this secret plan was made known to me. I have already written about it briefly,
4 and if you read what I have written, you will grasp how I understand this secret plan concerning the Messiah.
5 In past generations it was not known to mankind, as the Spirit is now revealing it to His emissaries and prophets.
6 that in union with the Messiah through the Good News the Gentiles (Believers) were to be joint heirs, a joint body and joint sharers with the Jews in what God has promised.
7 I became a servant of the Good News by God’s gracious gift, which He gave me through the operation of His power.
This provides clear and specific instructions on the mystery of the Messiah: Believers are fellow heirs and members of the body and mutual partakers of the promises in the Messiah Yeshua through the gospel.
Revelation is directed to the Jew first, and such is true of the entire biblical record : Torah , Prophets, Writings, Gospels and Epistles. Believers are included, but they do not replace Isra’el or the Jews as the peoples of God. Instead, the Bible is written to the followers of the God of Isra’el and His Messiah Yeshua – both Jews and believers, bound together in the Messiah – in anticipation of the restoration of the kingdom to Isra’el, which includes the blessing of all the nation.
Many believer Christians read the biblical texts as directed primarily to them and not to Jews. This is a fundamental; error of replacement theology. Matters grow worse when there is an overreaction to replacement theology in the messianic movement and believers elevating themselves to virtually the same level as Jewish believers. The gospel is good news to those whom the promises are made: Isra’el. Through the fathers, the mystery of the good news will soon come into fullness and will extend the blessings extended to non-Jewish believers, while not requiring them to become Jews.
Sha’ul describes the mystery that non-Jewish believers are fellow heirs with Isra’el. However, to be fellow heirs does not mean to say the inheritance is identical. For example, a first-born son often inherited more than his younger brothers. It does mean, however, that non-Jewish believers are included in the inheritance. Sha’ul identifies Jews and non-Jewish believers as fellow believers of the body in the Messiah, and non-Jews are included in the people of God.
All believers are fellow partakers of the promise in Messiah Yeshua through the good news , the promises of the Holy Spirit, the forgiveness of sins and resurrection at the last day.
In the end, the non-Jewish believers in Messiah Yeshua will sit down in the kingdom with Avraham, Yitz’chak and Ya’akov – not as a replacement for Isra’el, but as an extension of God’s people called by His name! HALLELUYAH!